From: BioMed Central firstname.lastname@example.org : email@example.com : June 8, 2011
Subject: Latest Article Alert from Malaria Journal (4 articles)
The following new articles have just been published in Malaria Journal
Treatment of uncomplicated malaria at public health facilities and medicine retailers in south-eastern Nigeria
Mangham LJ, Cundill B, Ezeoke O, Nwala E, Uzochukwu BS, Wiseman V, Onwujekwe O
Malaria Journal 2011, 10:155 (8 June 2011)
[Abstract] [Provisional PDF]
At primary care facilities in Nigeria, national treatment guidelines state that malaria should be symptomatically diagnosed and treated with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Evidence from households and health care providers indicates that many patients do not receive the recommended treatment. This study sought to determine the extent of the problem by collecting data as patients and caregivers leave health facilities, and determine what influences the treatment received.
A cross-sectional cluster survey of 2,039 respondents exiting public health centres, pharmacies and patent medicine dealers was undertaken in urban and rural settings in Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria.
Although 79% of febrile patients received an anti-malarial, only 23% received an ACT. Many patients (38%) received sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). A further 13% of patients received an artemisinin-derivative as a monotherapy. An estimated 66% of ACT dispensed was in the correct dose. The odds of a patient receiving an ACT was highly associated with consumer demand (OR: 55.5, p<0.001).
Few febrile patients attending public health facilities, pharmacies and patent medicine dealers received an ACT, and the use of artemisinin-monotherapy and less effective anti-malarials is concerning. The results emphasize the importance of addressing both demand and supply-side influences on malaria treatment and the need for interventions that target consumer preferences as well as seek to improve health service provision.
Anopheles gambiae distribution and insecticide resistance in the cities of Douala and Yaounde (Cameroon): influence of urban agriculture and pollution
Antonio-Nkondjio C, Tene Fossog B, Ndo C, Menze Djantio B, Zebaze Togouet S, Awono-Ambene P, Costantini C, Wondji CS, Ranson H
Malaria Journal 2011, 10:154 (8 June 2011)
[Abstract] [Provisional PDF]
Urban malaria is becoming a major health priority across Africa. A study was undertaken to assess the importance of urban pollution and agriculture practice on the distribution and susceptibility to insecticide of malaria vectors in the two main cities in Cameroon.
Anopheline larval breeding sites were surveyed and water samples analysed monthly from October 2009 to December 2010. Parameters analysed included turbidity, pH, temperature, conductivity, sulfates, phosphates, nitrates, nitrites, ammonia, aluminium, alkalinity, iron, potassium, manganese, magnesium, magnesium hardness and total hardness. Characteristics of water bodies in urban areas were compared to rural areas and between urban sites. The level of susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae to 4% DDT, 0.75% permethrin, 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 5% malathion were compared between mosquitoes collected from polluted, non polluted and cultivated areas.
A total of 1,546 breeding sites, 690 in Yaounde and 856 in Douala, were sampled in the course of the study. Almost all measured parameters had a concentration of 2- to 100-fold higher in urban compare to rural breeding sites. No resistance to malathion was detected, but bendiocarb resistance was present in Yaounde. Very low mortality rates were observed following DDT or permethrin exposure, associated with high kdr frequencies. Mosquitoes collected in cultivated areas, exhibited the highest resistant levels. There was little difference in insecticide resistance or kdr allele frequency in mosquitoes collected from polluted versus non-polluted sites.
The data confirm high selection pressure on mosquitoes originating from urban areas and suggest urban agriculture rather than pollution as the major factor driving resistance to insecticide.
Best practices for an insecticide-treated bed net distribution programme in sub-Saharan eastern Africa
Malaria Journal 2011, 10:157 (8 June 2011)
[Abstract] [Provisional PDF]
Insecticide-treated bed nets are the preeminent malaria control means; though there is no consensus as to a best practice for large-scale insecticide-treated bed net distribution. In order to determine the paramount distribution method, this review assessed literature on recent insecticide treated bed net distribution programmes throughout sub-Saharan Eastern Africa. Inclusion criteria were that the study had taken place in sub-Saharan Eastern Africa, targeted malaria prevention and control, and occurred between 1996 and 2007. Forty-two studies were identified and reviewed. The results indicate that distribution frameworks varied greatly; and consequently so did outcomes of insecticide-treated bed net use. Studies revealed consistent inequities between urban and rural populations; which were most effectively alleviated through a free insecticide-treated bed net delivery and distribution framework. However, cost sharing through subsidies was shown to increase programme sustainability, which may lead to more long-term coverage. Thus, distribution should employ a catch up/keep up programme strategy. The catch-up programme rapidly scales up coverage, while the keep-up programme maintains coverage levels. Future directions for malaria control should include progress toward distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets.